FAQs
(F
requently Asked Questions)

Preamble: Do you have further questions or helpful suggestions regarding fishing lines? Please feel free to write to us at contact / legal notice. If your comments and questions are of general interest then we would be pleased to include them. In this way you are helping us keep our FAQs up to date and increasing their relevance. Keeping you informed is what they are there for.

 

The list of questions is split into four sections.

In Section I we present general questions to fishing lines as well as general questions regarding STROFT fishing lines.

In Section II all about monofilaments that is fishing lines made of a single strand or filament.

In Section III we deal with polyfilaments or multifilament lines made up of more than one strand.

In Section IV we answer questions regarding WAKU’s history and development as well as the STROFT-philosophy.

 

Section I
What does breaking strain, breaking-load, tensile strength mean?
What does limit of elastic-elongation, elongation-at-fracture, minimal-load-elongation and strike-elongation mean?
What does sensibility and feedback mean?
What does "line memory" mean?
What does flexibility, suppleness, stiffness, softness mean?
What are the pros and contras of nylon, fluorocarbon and UHMWPE?
Where can one buy STROFT fishing line?
How should a STROFT fishing line be stored?
How long does STROFT fishing line keep?
How does one stop fishing line twisting and avoid birds-nests?
What is the purpose of the STROFT foam-rubber ring?
What are the advantages of using a STROFT rig-ring?

What is the STROFT GTM leader system?

Back to top

Section II
What is a monofilament fishing line?
Do objective tests exist for monofilament line?
What are STROFT monofilament fishing lines made of?
What is fluorocarbon and why is there no STROFT fluorocarbon available?
How are STROFT monofilament lines manufactured?
Why is the line at the bottom of a spool sometimes uneven?
Which knots are recommended for STROFT fishing lines?
What about the diameter and given breaking strains of STROFT monofilament fishing lines?
What does the EFFTA seal of quality mean and how is it achieved?

Back to top

Section III
What does multifilament mean?
Are there objective test results / grades for multifilament (braided) lines?
Which fibres are used to make STROFT multifilament lines?
How are the fibres for STROFT multifilaments made?
How are singular fibres made into a STROFT multifilament fishing line?
What are STROFT Dimples?
Which knots are recommended for STROFT multifilament fishing lines?
What are the maximum breaking strengths that can be achieved with Dyneema fishing lines?
What about the stated diameters of multifilament lines?
Why is there no EFFTA quality seal for multifilament fishing lines?

Back to top

Section IV
WAKU, the company history this far
What does the name STROFT mean?
What is the STROFT philosophy?

Back to top

 

 

 

 

Section I

What does breaking strain, breaking-load and tensile strength mean?

Breaking strain (Fmax) and breaking-load are two names for the same property. The breaking strain of a fishing line describes the amount of force that a line can pull before it breaks e.g. 10 kg. We use the term „(Fmax)“. The correct unit for force is actually N (Newton). 9.81 Newton = 1kg, but this is somewhat depending on one’s geographical position. Kilogram is actually the unit of weight and depends on the strength of gravity. For example, an object that weighs 1kg on earth would weigh slightly less in some places on earth and a lot less in outer space (weightlessness). A force, however, stays the same no matter where it is exerted. But as there aren’t many fish on the moon it’s okay to rate line strength in kg or lb. The tensile strength (Rm) of a line is the result of dividing the breaking strain (Fmax) with the area of its cross section (S). This results in (Rm = Fmax / S) and is expressed in kg/mm2. Conversely, it’s easy to work out the breaking strain (Fmax) of a line, by multiplying the tensile strength (Rm) with the cross sectional area (S) which gives (Fmax = Rm x S) the breaking strain. If the line is round then the cross sectional area (S) can be worked out using the diameter (d)  then (S = d2 x 0,785). Every angler does this subconsciously as the breaking strain (Fmax) alone is not an indicator of the tensile strength of a fishing line. The breaking strain is only of relevance in connection with the diameter or cross-sectional area of a fishing line. The tensile strength (in relation to the prevailing conditions; hot, cold wet, dry without knots and knotted) is only one of many different properties that are of relevance for fishing lines. However, it is the singularly most important property. Also, tensile strength strongly influences many other properties. The finer the fishing line (of the same breaking strain) the lower the visibility, the memory, the elasticity and the water resistance - lures work better, bait presentation, sensibility, casting distance and accuracy is improved.

Back to top  

What does limit of elastic-elongation, elongation-at-fracture, minimal-load-elongation and strike-elongation mean?

The materials that are used to make fishing lines generally increase or decrease in length at a steady rate (linear elasticity), at least at the beginning of being stretched. Basically, up to an extent they return to their original length after being stretched. Conversely the limit of elastic-elongation is the point at which in this case a fishing line can no longer return to its original length. Then elongation has taken place, the line is longer than before. The elongation-at-fracture (expressed in %) defines the percentage of elongation that has taken place at the point when the line brakes. The minimal-load-elongation conveys how the line stretches when under small loads. Minimal load elongation occurs for example when one pulls a spinner through the water or when a fish is biting gently. The line does stretch under these circumstances, the amount of stretch has an obvious effect on the quality of the feedback to the angler. See also: What does sensibility and feedback mean?  The strike-elongation conveys the way a line stretches in reaction to an abrupt or sudden load that occurs for a very short space of time. The fighting-elongation is used to describe how a line stretches in reaction to a prolonged but steady load, which occurs when playing a fish.

Back to top

What does sensibility and feedback mean?

The fishing line connects the angler and his bait. It is sometimes necessary that the line communicates everything that is happening to the angler, depending on the type of fishing. That could mean feeling just how your spinner is running or noticing the tiniest of bites. The capability that a line possesses to communicate these and other events, directly to the angler, we call sensibility or feedback.

Back to top

What does line memory mean?

Line memory describes a line’s attempt to return to a previous form, such as looping up after leaving a spool. If the distortion is within the limits of the lines linear elasticity then the line will return to its original form, without any detrimental effects. One can speed this process up by slightly stretching the line. If the line has suffered actual deformation, so that the length and or the structure of the line is distorted (plastic deformation), then it will not return to its original length or form. See also:  What does limit of elastic-elongation, elongation-at-fracture, minimal-load-elongation and strike-elongation mean? If, for example, one pulls a piece of line over a sharp edge whilst keeping it taught, the line will very probably curl up into a series of loops. These loops cannot be removed by simply stretching the line. This is not the “memory effect”, but plastic deformation has taken place and the damaged line should be replaced.

Back to top

What does flexibility, suppleness, stiffness, softness mean?

These terms are all used to describe the same property. A fishing line that is stiff is more difficult to cast with a fixed spool reel than a soft, flexible fishing line that snugs down nicely on the spool and glides smoothly through the rings. Mono that is stiff tends to spring off the reel spool and build “birds nests”. It has a greater memory effect than a multifilament. Multifilament Dyneema lines are soft and supple, only coated braids can be rather stiff. However, even such braids have a low memory effect as the outer coating is soft and deforms easily, similar to copper wire.

Back to top

What are the pros and contras of nylon, fluorocarbon, and dyneema?

There’s no short answer to this one. See: The pros and contras of nylon, fluorocarbon and dyneema. here we have listed all the pros and contras of the three different fishing line materials.

Back to top

Where can one buy STROFT fishing line?

In Germany WAKU recommends that anglers buy from tackle dealers. If there are no dealers near-by, then anglers can get our products online at the Online-Shop of ASPO GmbH. The online prices are identical to the recommended tackle shop prices. For anglers abroad WAKU recommends its network of authorised dealers of WAKU GmbH or alternatively to use the Online-Shop of ASPO GmbH.

Back to top

How should a STROFT fishing line be stored?

Although all STROFT fishing lines are equipped with powerful UV-blockers that are designed to reduce the damage done by light, we recommend that our lines are stored in a dark place with reasonable humidity. If soiled, the line should be washed after use in clean water. See also: What is the purpose of the STROFT foam-rubber ring?

Back to top

How long does STROFT fishing line keep?

There are so many things that can affect the condition of fishing lines and different anglers have such different requirements that it’s impossible to say just how long a line keeps. Holiday anglers will use a STROFT fishing line and will still be delighted with the performance even after years of use. An angler who is intensely keen may wish to change a line after a year of use, or even less. A competition angler will at least check his line after every event and may also change it. We recommend that an angler frequently checks at least the last few meters of line for rough spots and simply cuts off the damaged section. Of course, one can actually reverse a fishing line. The line next to or near the spool is seldom stressed and by simply reversing the line an angler can fish with an “as new” fishing line. The surface deformation is of little consequence, it doesn’t affect the breaking strain or any other important properties and in fact the line soon takes on its original form. See also: Why is the line at the bottom of a spool sometimes uneven?

Back to top

How does one stop fishing line from twisting and birds-nests?

Please note that this information is not just relevant for STROFT lines, but in fact all fishing lines are affected equally from line twist caused by spooling up as well as line twist caused by actual fishing.

Line twist caused by spooling up:
When spooling up with a fixed spool reel each coil of line is turned 90° which twists the line. When spooling up with STROFT, this line twist can be kept to a minimum by pulling the line off the side of the spool that has no label. In order to achieve this lie the spool of line, label down, on the floor (a) or hold the line spool as in (b). Then thread the line through the rod rings and attach it to the reel spool. With a multiplying reel, pull the line off the line spool, as in the diagram on the right. Thread the line through the rings, attach it to the spool. Use a pencil or similar object to allow the spool to revolve.

            stationary reel                                                              multiplying reel

            

 

There will always be some line twist, which is not a problem, particularly if you follow the subsequent advice: Allow the line a couple of days to adjust to the form of the new spool (memory effect) otherwise it will try and regain its previous form, resulting in the line being springy, unmanageable and can even form birds nests during use. With STROFT GTP multifilament lines there is as good as no memory effect.

Line twist as a result of angling:
This is mainly a problem caused when spinning. If the swivel or the spinner isn’t working properly then the line may be subsequently twisted. But it can occur when ledgering, actually whenever one reels in an object that is not symmetrical; it can easily twist the line. If this is the case and line twist is becoming a problem, firstly try and locate and remove the cause of the problem. Then remove the line twist by laying out the line on a grassy field and simply reeling in slowly, holding the line between finger and thumb. If necessary, this can be repeated until the line is lying nice and straight on the reel again.

Birds’ Nests and Tangles:
The over-filled spool of a fixed spool reel (USA: spinning reel) can result in tangles during casting. We recommend filling the spool up to about 1-2 mm below the edge. This applies basically to all lines and reels used for casting: The fuller the spool, the greater the danger of the line tangling. The extent of the problem also depends on the quality of the cross winding achieved by the reel and the pressure with which the line is wound onto the spool. It should also be noted that the emptier the spool the shorter the cast will be. So ultimately it is up to the angler to take these factors into account when filling his reel. Too little line reduces the distance that can be cast, too much results in tangles.

Back to top


What is the purpose of the STROFT foam-rubber ring?

The foam rubber ring seals the line off from the light protecting it from light and UV rays. See also: How should a STROFT fishing line be stored? With the protective ring in place it’s easy to remove trace lengths of line from the spool, it keeps the line in place on the spool, protects it from physical damage and is easy to remove, just pinch and pull.

What are the advantages of using a STROFT rig-ring?

If a STROFT rig-ring is used, then one can use knots that have a significantly better knot strength than when connecting two lines directly, also much better than connecting traces ​​directly to the main line. See also: Which knots are recommended for STROFT monofilament fishing lines? Also: Which knots are recommended for multifilament (braided) STROFT fishing lines? Also: STROFT catalog (see "www.stroft.de -> catalog" to scroll through).
Rig-rings bring the fly fisherman a host of other advantages:
a) The tippet is not repeatedly shortened and therefore needs to be replaced far less frequently.
b) Different tippets of different lengths and different materials can be easily replaced, e.g. to avoid scaring fish as much as possible.

What is the STROFT GTM – Leader-System?

The system consists of knotless, gradually tapered fly fishing leaders, resulting in excellent elasticity and roll-over characteristics. The well-proven STROFT GTM monofilament is used, creating a perfect leader: Combining the highest knot strength, with the lowest possible visibility and minimum possible intrusiveness, high wear resistance and tough, but elastic suppleness. Increased shock absorbing stretch towards the middle of the line helps landing more stubborn fish safely. Overall, the system consists of four different lengths (7.5 ft - 9 ft - 12 ft -15 ft) and 11 different thicknesses (7X 6X 5X 4X 3X 2X 1X 0X 01X-02X-03X) , i.e. resulting in 44 leaders for every conceivable application - from ultra-lightweight dry fly-fishing to heavy duty ocean fly-fishing. See also: STROFT catalog. And under www.stroft.de -> Tapered leaders you find suggestions on how to produce about 1000 more rigs from these 44, with only small changes, demonstrating how the elasticity, roll-off or unobtrusiveness can be further improved. You will also find a wide range of tips and hints in order to choose the best leader for your application.

Back to top

 

Section II

What is a monofilament fishing line?

The Greek word “monos” means alone or single. The Latin word “filum” means strand or fibre. So the expression monofilament fishing line means a fishing line consisting of a singular fibre. A multifilament is a line containing many individual strands. See also: What does multifilament mean?

Back to top

Do objective tests exist for monofilament line?

The German fishing magazine “Rute & Rolle” published a test that had been carried out by the TUV institution in Munich. Different attributes and properties of ten different monofilaments where tested. For example, given diameter compared to actual diameter, knot strength before stretching, knot strength after stretching, knot strength after being exposed to heat, knot strength before being exposed to heat, stretch after heat exposure. The clear winner of these tests was STROFT GTM.  Read full test.

Back to top

What are STROFT monofilament fishing lines made of?

All monofilament fishing lines are made of either fluorocarbon or polyamid (nylon). Sometimes the term “copolymer” is used. This is also nylon, but it’s been mixed with additives in order to improve certain properties.  All STROFT monofilament fishing lines are manufactured from copolymers (nylon with additives). For a fundamental and detailed description see: What are the pros and contras of nylon, fluorocarbon and dyneema.Nylon has the big advantage that it can actually be tuned (e.g. using additives, controlled stretching, heat treating and tempering) to greatly improve certain properties (e. g. breaking strain, knot strength, softness, surface hardness, etc.) Fluorocarbon has not been used for fishing lines by WAKU until now. See following question regarding fluorocarbon.

Back to top

What is flourocarbon and why is there no STROFT fluorocarbon available?

Fluorocarbon is a plastic that is supposed to have some advantages over nylon. The most noted advantage is the lower visibility, when immersed in water, compared to nylon. In truth, fluorocarbon is less visible to the human eye than nylon when it is immersed; however, there is no conclusive proof that fish also “see it that way”.  Ultimately fluorocarbon should result in more bites, but tests have not yet been able to prove this claim. These test were conducted using transparent fishing line such as STROFT GTM und STROFT ABR, the same number of bites were noted with these lines as well as with fluorocarbon lines. If one takes into account the lower knot strength of fluorocarbon line, so that one actually requires thicker line, then, in reality, fluorocarbon may be worse in this respect than nylon line.
However, there are areas where fluorocarbon has clear advantages, such as when a line is required to sink quickly. Fluorocarbon has a higher specific weight so it defiantly sinks faster which can be very useful when using nymphs or streamers for example.
Fluorocarbon also has a higher resistance to abrasion, after having been submersed for some time. And many fluorocarbon fans prefer the slightly higher sensibility. Up until know WAKU has not sold fluorocarbon lines as the poor knot strength outweighed the advantages. However, we have found a method of improving the knot strength so that WAKU will be offering a STROFT fishing line of 100% fluorocarbon in 2009. See also: What are the pros and contras of nylon, fluorocarbon and dyneema. This fishing line will also bear the EFFTA seal of quality. The American website www.tackletour.com (Lines/Additional Recent Articles/“Presenting the much…“ und „Tackletour´s Fluorocarbon…“) has an elaborate test showing the properties of fluorocarbon lines. The results shown here correspond with our own tests.
 

Back to top

How are STROFT monofilament lines manufactured?

STROFT monofilament fishing lines are made of a polyamide plastic, better known as “nylon”.
See also: What are the pros and contras of nylon, fluorocarbon and dyneema.

The polymer-composition
At the start of the production line nylon granulate (milky white nylon chips) together with the required additives are pored into the hopper of the extruder. The additives are required to change or enhance certain properties in the finished fishing line such as increased abrasion resistance or decreased photosensitivity. Also there are colour pigments that give the finished line its colour. This mix of plastics is sometimes referred to as copolymers, blend or polymer-composition. But there is always more nylon than anything else, the combination of these “ingredients” forms the basis of the finished STROFT fishing line.

The Extruder
Once inside the extruder the copolymers are heated to about 245°C to form a viscous fluid that is transported via a spiral to the spin-pump. The spin-pump presses the compound through a tool containing many small holes, similar to a shower head. The fluid threads that are thus formed are passed through a series of “tempering baths” and cooled to form raw threads. But these threads are still not STROFT fishing lines yet. Now the tuning starts, the lines go through a series of production steps in order to impart the properties that are necessary in a STROFT fishing line.

Conditioning
The raw threads are passed through tanks in which some constituents are removed and others added through the process of diffusion. Also the raw threads are pre-finished with a special coating that will protect them in the coming “torture”.

Stretching
The lines are then taken to the stretching unit or „the rack” as we call it. Then they are stretched up to 6 times their original length, at different stages and different temperatures, in doing so we change the molecular arrangement. Until now the molecular chains where chaotic. Now they are aligned and run parallel to each other. The more successful we are in achieving this, the higher is the tensile strength of the finished fishing line.

Tempering
That was absolute stress for our lines, but on the other hand they are now fishing lines. However, STROFT fishing lines still aren’t finished. All that tension and strain has increased the internal stress within the lines, which can lead to lower knot strength. If stress points come together in a knot it can cause the line to fail suddenly. So we put the lines through a series of tempering processes at different temperatures. The different stages of these heat treatments result in a smooth line with increased knot strength, raised sensibility, reduced memory and greater resistance to abrasion.

Finish
Finally, there are still more baths, where the surface is improved so that the lines can slide and glide through the rings effortlessly. Now and only now can the fishing line be called STROFT fishing line.

Back to top

 

Why is the line at the bottom of a spool sometimes uneven?

The surface of the lower wraps on the line spool is often uneven (also on the reel spool). This is caused by the pressure exerted by wrapping the line around the spool, the pressure is increased by the upper layers. However the line is not damaged in any way and soon returns to its normal smoothness as soon as the pressure is released. This doesn’t take long, especially in summer. See also: What does line memory mean?One can speed this process up by laying out the line and stretching it slightly, after this the line has regained 75% -95% of its original smoothness. This doesn’t take long, especially in summer. Extensive tests have shown that the resultantly smoothed line has no detrimental characteristics. One finds several lines nowadays where the sales spools are parallel wound. That has advantages both optically and possibly in sales, however, as we have stated above, there are no technical advantages. For this reason we see no reason to introduce this winding technique at the moment. This procedure is more expensive and we don’t want to increase the price of STROFT simply in order to sell a few more spools.

Back to top

Which knots are recommended for STROFT fishing lines?

WAKU and the German fishing magazine “Blinker” have put together a pamphlet of recommended knots for anglers, it’s called „Die wichtigsten Knoten für Angler“, another pamphlet for fly-fishing knots was put together with the fishing magazine “Fliegenfischer”, it’s called „Die besten Knoten für Fliegenfischer“. Both these pamphlets are free, contact us at Contact/Legal Notice. Very good results are obtained with STROFT monofilament lines when using the Uni-Knot also known as the Grinner-Knot (see "www.stroft.de -> Catalog" to scroll through) the knots are presented in detail in the STROFT catalog. If this knot is carefully tied and moistened before tightening, you can achieve knot strengths of up to 100%.

The vulnerability of knots should be taken into account when connecting lines of different materials (e.g. polyamide with Fluorocarbon) but also when connecting two lines of the same material, such as when tying tippets and leaders. In this case there are no known knots that achieve anything near 100% knot strength. The solution lies in the use of so-called rig-rings. See: STROFT catalog. See also: What are the advantages of using a STROFT rig-ring? STROFT rig-rings are available in 6 different sizes. They are used in between lines and result in high knot strengths when using the above mentioned Uni- or Grinner-Knots.

Back to top

What about the diameter and given breaking strains of STROFT monofilament fishing lines?

The tensile strength is the most important property of a monofilament fishing line. See also: What does breaking strain, breaking-load, tensile strength mean? The tensile strength expresses a comparison between the diameter and the linear load bearing capacity of a (round) fishing line. Fishing lines are promoted and advertised with this value;
it is the most important criteria when choosing a fishing line.

It is simpler to measure the diameter of a monofilament line than that of a multifilament. See also: What about the diameter of multifilament lines? The cross section of monofilaments is round and relatively constant so that it can be measured with a micrometer, easily achieving useful results. Obtaining comparable values is simply a matter of using the same contact pressure (e.g. via a ratchet).

One should note: Even the best monofilaments cannot be 100% round; also lines are subject to slight variations in diameter. Nowadays however manufacturers are capable of producing high quality monofilament lines that are round in cross section with only minimal variations in diameter and roundness over many thousands of meters. The total variation in high quality lines is no greater than + / - 0.002 mm. This is one of the most important quality characteristics; ultimately, any fishing line can only be as strong as its thinnest point. As a result, a modern monofilament line that is manufactured to a diameter of 0.25 mm can have a diameter of 0.248 mm at its thinnest point and 0.252 mm at the thickest point.

However, when manufacturing a high quality fishing line one must always bear the breaking strain in mind. The breaking strain is, at least to some extent, determined by the raw material. See also: How are STROFT monofilament lines manufactured? The raw material does vary slightly from one batch to another; this of course can also affect the breaking strain. So the diameters and the resulting breaking strain need to be closely monitored at the beginning of production and adjusted until the desired breaking strain is reached.

This can result in one setting the machine to a diameter of up to 0,26 mm for a 0.25 mm line. The deviation from the required diameter (0.25 mm) then amounts to 0.010 mm. In the industry, this deviation is referred to as the tolerance. Once the appropriate setting is found (in our example 0.260 mm), the entire batch (which are often several million meters) will be produced with this diameter.
When a diameter of 0.260 mm is required then again the above diameter variation applies, so that the entire batch may then fluctuate between 0.258 mm and 0.262 mm. The production process is of course repeatedly monitored and adjusted accordingly.
If another batch be produced at a later date with a different batch of raw material, the tolerances may be smaller resulting in a set diameter of 0.255 mm for a 0.25mm line. Or even a set diameter of 0.268 mm, again depending on the existing properties of this raw material being used.

Thus "diameter variation" and "tolerance" are two different things. One can also say:

"Diameter variation": This is the error which is caused by the manufacturing process. In STROFT lines it amounts to + / - 0.002 mm. A STROFT line, which was once set to 0.260 mm, varies over very long lengths (often several million meters) no more than between 0.258 mm and 0.262 mm.
"Tolerance": This is the error which ensures that the required breaking strain values are achieved and is caused by variations in the raw material. In STROFT lines it is from 0.000 mm up to 0.025 mm. A STROFT line with a nominal diameter of 0.25 mm can therefore have a "set" maximum diameter between 0.250 mm and 0.275 mm.

STROFT monofilaments are therefore produced to positive tolerances (like most other brands). We think this is reasonable, as these minimal variations (about two hundredths of a millimeter) have no real implications on general angling practice and certainly no negative effects for the angler whatsoever.
However, the "accepted tolerance“ and the allowed "diameter variation" should be clearly indicated on each data sheet, as is customary in the industry. This information for STROFT monofilament lines is clearly indicated on all labels, diameter tables and price lists.

Although these days the desired diameter of a fishing line can be relatively accurately produced, the breaking strain of monofilament lines is unfortunately much more unpredictable. Of course, the range of fluctuation varies from one manufacturer to another, depending on their capability and technical competence.
In accordance with our in-house quality control standards STROFT monofilaments (GTM, ABR, FLUOR, FC1 and FC2) are only allowed small fluctuations in breaking strain. We do this by testing the breaking strain before we test the diameter.In regard to the production process the permissible tolerance, as discussed above, is useful and helpful, because you can vary the diameter slightly from batch to batch (which are often more than 1 million meters) to always ensure the most volatile low-capacity .
Using exactly calibrated and tested fishing lines is even more important when claiming IGFA records as these lines then have to stand up to the IGFA’s test criterion. Such lines must possess the highest possible breaking strain for their diameter, but in no case are they allowed to exceed the required line class breaking strain. We will be offering such lines probably in 2013.

Back to top

What does the EFTTA seal of quality mean and how is it achieved?

efttalogogtm *          efttalogogtmneu **

As a couple of years ago more and more fishing lines with unrealistic breaking strains came on the market the EFTTA (European Fishing Tackle Trade Association) reacted and set up a neutral test procedure in a laboratory in Great Britain. Since then all manufacturers have had the opportunity to have the diameter and breaking strain of their lines neutrally verified. When the manufacturer’s values corresponded with the test results then they were awarded the EFTTA seal of quality*.
The EFTTA wishes to effectively combat fraudulent manufacturers and has now created a new logo ** in order to do so. This logo** may be used by those companies that have joined the "EFTTA line charter ". By subscribing to the charter these companies commit themselves to stating the true diameter and breaking strains and to monitor and adhere to these values using appropriate quality tests. Companies giving fraudulent information may be prosecuted in court, if necessary. We welcome this new initiative, especially because we have been discussing this problem for years. The STROFT GTM was one of the first lines proved and tested by the EFTTA at the beginning of 2004 subsequently receiving the "EFTTA approved" logo. As of the beginning of 2012 you can now find the new "EFTTA logo" on all STROFT monofilament labels. More information about the EFTTA line charter can be found at www.eftta.com. Now the consumer has the opportunity to separate the wheat from the chaff. Further information on the EFTTA line test can be found here: www.EFTTA.com. As of now the consumer has the opportunity to separate the wheat from the chaff and buy verified quality products that carry the EFTTA label. One should certainly wonder why some products do not carry the EFTTA label, particularly when the breaking strains seem comparatively high. See also: Why is there no EFFTA quality seal for multifilament fishing lines?

                               

 Back to top

 

Section III

What does multifilament mean?

The Latin word “multi” means many or numerous, the word “filum” is also Latin and means fiber or thread, consequently multifilament means consisting of many fibers. Sometimes one uses the expression polyfilament, the word poly is Greek for many or numerous, so the word polyfilament has the same meaning.
The term "nanofil" (derived from the Greek "nannos," or Latin "nanus" = "dwarf") is starting to crop up. Again, this is a fishing line consisting of several individual fibers, wherein the individual fibers lie parallel to each other.
But depending on the way, in which the individual fibers are connected, one distinguishes between twisted, woven, welded, bonded, fused or braided multifilament fishing lines - or a combination thereof. Current state of the art multifilament consists of "pure" braid (without coating or gluing), special braiding results in a tight, compact and round braid of high quality.
Unfortunately, the production of such braided lines is also very elaborate and therefore relatively expensive. On the other hand, such lines have a very long and useful  life, in fact several times longer than that of the twisted, woven, welded, bonded or fused lines. The bottom line is that a ‘true’ high quality braid is less expensive in the long run.
If one also takes the fact into account that braids allow knots (splices) that reach up to 100% linear knot strength, then a whole range of advantages over other multifilament lines is opened -> the use of thinner lines is possible, which in turn means -> greater casting distances -> lower scare factor -> less water resistance -> less drift -> higher sensitivity -> better feedback. See also: Which knots are recommended for multifilament (braided) STROFT fishing lines?
And: Of course it depends on the nature and quality of the fibers that are used. All manufacturers of good braided lines today use UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene), which have become known under the brand name "Dyneema", "Spectra" and "Tivar". But even here there are differences and continuous improvements. For more details see also: The STROFT catalog (to scroll through "www.stroft.de -> catalog") and see how the individual fibers are made into STROFT multifilament fishing lines. See also: How are singular fibres made into a STROFT multifilament fishing line?

Back to top

Are there objective test results / grades for multifilament (braided) lines?

The German fishing magazine Blinker tested 12 multifilaments from different manufacturers, different qualities came under scrutiny such as: braiding – suppleness – surface – thickness – castability – how it sits on the spool – abrasion-resistance – breaking strain (by the German Fisheries Research Institute (BFAFi) in Hamburg). The best in test was clearly the STROFT GTP from WAKU. Blinker magazine said of STROFT GTP: There is a clear winner, and it is the Stroft GTP from Waku. Compared to its indicated diameter, it was judged extremely thin, round and supple. On the water, it scored with its very good performance on the reel and good casting qualities. In the tensile test, it withstood a greater load then advertised on the spool. Read full test.  

Back to top

Which fibres are used to make STROFT multifilament lines?

Multifilament lines are made out of different kinds of fibres all over the world. Earlier lines were made of cotton, and silk, more recently from Dacron Kevlar, Aramid and Polyester, amongst others. Modern fishing lines are made of high-tech fibres that are sometimes combined with each other. However, when maximum breaking strain is one of the requirements of a fishing line then one fibre has asserted itself. It’s called „Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene“ (UHMWPE), we know it under the name of Dyneema. This is a registered brand name of the Dutch chemical company, Royal DSM N.V. The same fibre is made under license in exactly the same way in Japan by a company called Toyobo Co. In Greenville, North Carolina, DSM also produce UHMWPE. This location in the USA is the biggest producer world wide. Honeywell sells its UHMWPE fibres under the brand name of Spectra. Quadrant EPP Inc. produces a  UHMWPE fibre called „Tivar“, as do Röchling Engineering Plastics who call their product „Polystone-M“. STROFT fishing lines are made exclusively to 100% of only the best, UHMWPE fibers that are available worldwide. For this reason and because it is still the best fibre on the market, we name these fibres “Peak Dyneema”. For detailed information see also: What are the pros and contras of nylon, fluorocarbon and dyneema.

Back to top

How are the fibres for STROFT multifilaments made?

DSM manufacture a fibre utilising a method that was patented in 1979, it’s called “Gel Spinning” and is basically similar to how polyamides are made. See also How are STROFT monofilament lines manufactured?The companies Honeywell, Quadrant EEP Inc. und Röchling Engineering Plastics use a different manufacturing technique but the resulting fibre has similar characteristics. The “gel spinning” technique from DSM produces the best and strongest fibres world wide. The fibres have a diameter of 0,01mm and a tensile strength of 350 kg/mm2. Incidentally one can use this value to calculate the true maximum breaking strain of a fishing line; a 0.18mm diameter line has a maximum breaking strain of 7.4kg. We use only these fibres in order to make STROFT GTP lines. See also: What are the maximum breaking strengths that can be achieved with dyneema fishing lines? The individual fibres for STROFT GTP fishing lines are dyed to there permanent colour in special baths, tempering them in a PTFE bath gives them their final surface finish. In this way we ensure that STROFT GTP colours are permanent and don’t wash out and that the lines are highly abrasion resistant. Thus we make certain that STROFT GTP has a long lifespan. STROFT GTP doesn’t require a coating (such coatings don’t last anyway) to guard it from the environment, as in the case of loosely braided or twisted lines.  For detailed information see also: What are the pros and contras of nylon, fluorocarbon and dyneema.

Back to top

How are singular fibres made into a STROFT multifilament fishing line?

Multifilament STROFT GTP is made by braiding. Other multifilament lines are not braided but are twisted, welded or stuck to form lines. The fibres for STROFT GTP are first bundled into yarn, the number of fibres in a yarn and the number of yarns in a fishing line depends on the required strength that we wish to achieve. STROFT GTP Typ 12 consists of 8 single yarns each consisting of 300 individual fibres. Our special braiding technique results in an almost perfectly round line with arrow-like “dimples” on the surface. See also: What are STROFT Dimples? Due to the particularly tight braid there are very few air cavities which makes the line more resilient. Moreover, this prevents foreign substances from being deposited within the braid, resulting in a further increased in life span. With STROFT GTP type S, we divided the individual fibers into an even greater number of strands and then braid them together using a very complex "multi-strand-process". Here, the braid angles can be increased, whereby the fibers are slightly less bent, resulting in type S having an even higher tensile strength. The "S" stands for "Smooth", this line is so smooth that it almost feels like a monofilament!!!
And this STROFT special braiding gives the angler another major advantage over all other multifilament lines that are not as closely woven, compact and round: it enables knots that retain up to 100% (spliced) of the lines breaking strain. See also: What does multifilament mean? and also: Which knots are recommended for STROFT multifilament fishing lines?
 

Back to top

What are STROFT Dimples?

The surface of STROFT GTP is covered with dimples, these occur partly as a result of the braiding, but they are also intentional. The dimples produce air turbulence and reduce the air resistance of the line during casting, which results in longer casts than would be possible with a smooth surface. The surface of a golf ball also is dimpled for the same reason. A smooth golf ball wouldn’t fly nearly as far. The number and depth of the dimples is governed by the thickness of the individual fibres, the number of fibres per yarn, the number of yarns used, the angle of braid as well as the exceedingly tight braiding procedure that also results in such a round fishing line.

Back to top

Which knots are recommended for STROFT multifilament fishing lines?

WAKU and the German fishing magazine “Blinker” have published a knot pamphlet „Die wichtigsten Knoten für Angler“ (German language only), a copy of which we would be happy to send to you free of charge, see: Contact/Legal Notice. And these knots can by and large also be used with STROFT GTP lines. But to make the best of the STROFT GTP’s high linear tensile strength as well as the STROFT special braid the angler should use self-clamping spliced loops and connections, that is the way to ensure 100% linear load capacity. If one takes the trouble to create such a loop with the help of a sewing needle, then you will be rewarded with the great potential that lies in the UHMWPE fiber in conjunction with the STROFT special braiding. The STROFT catalog contains detailed instructions on how to splice STROFT GTP. This catalog can also be viewed at "www.stroft.de -> knots".

Back to top

What are the maximum breaking strengths that can be achieved with dyneema fishing lines?

The tensile strength of the world’s best UHMWPE fibre, when tested under laboratory conditions, is approx. 450 kg/mm². See also: What does breaking strain, breaking load, tensile strength mean? However, the finished product always has a slightly lower tensile strength, for two reasons:
a) The cross section of the line does not just contain fibers, but inevitably also pockets of air between the round individual fibers.
b) The braiding bends the fibers; this reduces the tensile strength in comparison with the linear tensile strength.

But let’s base our assumptions on the “laboratory value" of about 450 kg/mm².

Accepting that the load bearing capacity = tensile strength / cross-section, a UHMWPE multifilament line of 0.06mm diameter can achieve a maximum breaking strain of 1.27 kg. More is impossible! However, the labels of many manufacturers clearly claim magical breaking strains for their multifilament lines, one line for example has a stated breaking strain of 10.6 kg with a diameter of only 0.06 mm. This gives a legendary load bearing capacity of 3751 kg/mm². This figure is about 8 times higher than given by the manufacturers of the best UHMWPE fibers. Of late a line has arrived on the market that has a stated breaking strain of 1,415 kg with a stated diameter 0.02 mm. This would result in a load bearing capacity of 4506 kg/mm². More than 10 times of that which can be achieved under laboratory conditions! What can one say to that? This is obviously a blatant lie!

Back to top

What about the stated diameters of multifilament lines?

Specifying the diameter of multifilament lines is a little more difficult than with monofilament lines for two main reasons. See also: What about the diameter and given breaking strains of STROFT monofilament fishing lines?
a) Many of these lines are rather "flat" or elliptical and rarely around. A diameter is of course only relevant for a round line, otherwise only an average diameter is given.
b) Even with very round multifilament lines, for which one could actually state a true diameter, the process of measurement is at least for the layman problematic, certainly more so than when measuring monofilaments. Multifilament lines are relatively soft and using a micrometer compresses them, which distorts the results.
Nevertheless, it would of course be easy for the manufacturer to indicate a relatively correct diameter of their multifilament lines, whether the line is flat, round or soft, namely that of the sum total diameters of the fibers used. Then a 0.20mm multifilament would fill the spool of a reel in just the same way as a monofilament with a diameter of 0.20 mm.
Unfortunately, many manufacturers give either the diameter of the flat side of a flat line, or the diameter when the line is compressed with the screw of a micrometer, or even both.
One shouldn’t be surprised, if one achieved the same reel capacity with a 0.06 mm as with a monofilament of 0,20 mm. See also: What are the maximum breaking strains that can be achieved with Dyneema fishing lines? This is actually quite clearly fraud!

We refuse to make fraudulent claims. Therefore we state no "diameter data", but rather a “type” and breaking strain. However, if  the angler wants to know how many meters of STROFT GTP line type fit on his reel, he can read this from the last two digits of the number (see catalog page 15). For example, for type R4 one reads "…22", which means that this line will fill a reel similarly to a monofilament with a diameter of 0.22 mm.

Back to top

Why is there no EFFTA quality seal for multifilament fishing lines?

Many anglers have noticed that actual breaking strains and diameters often differ from that stated. In the meantime many also know which manufacturers are giving truthful information and which don’t. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to continually and repeatedly assert oneself against deception. It’s even more difficult for anglers who are new to the sport to source and obtain the product that they require in terms of breaking strain and diameter. Therefore it would be desirable for the EFTTA to test multifilament lines just as it does monofilaments. After all, the EFTTA logo for the monofilament lines has been very successful. Almost all the "exaggerated" products have disappeared from the market. The same would happen, just as quickly, with the multifilament lines. But unfortunately the EFTTA has not yet taken action - perhaps partly because it is some of their more powerful members who are being dishonest. At the moment we have the curious situation that there are line producers who truthfully use the EFTTA logo for their monofilaments, but at the same time make exaggerated, dishonest claims for their multifilament lines. Let's hope that the EFTTA changes this impossible situation and soon expands the EFTTA logo to cover multifilament lines also.
In this way the angler will finally have the chance to separate the wheat from the chaff.

Back to top

 

Section IV

WAKU; the company history this far?

The companies founder Walter Kummerow (born in Lübeck, 1944) has concerned himself with fishing lines since his youth. A passionate angler and twenty-four times casting world champion (10 disciplines in target and distance casting), he was always convinced that to be a successful angler and sports-caster one requires the best fishing lines available. This realisation has governed his working life. At the end of 1960 he consulted the head of product development of Plat GmbH on improving PLATIL STRONG fishing line which at the time was the world’s best monofilament line. He helped bring into being the PLATIL-World-Cup, which he subsequently won on three occasions, and now owns. After studying mechanical engineering as well as economics he lead DAM’s (at that time Europe’s biggest tackle manufacturer) department of research and development in Berlin. As co-founder of ASPO GmbH together with Plate GmbH he introduced the ASPON C fishing line to the market in Berlin in 1976. This line was an absolutely top monofilament at this point in time. In 1983 Walter Kummerow founded WAKU GmbH in Berlin. WAKU line-testers were manufactured and the fishing line name STROFT came into being. From this time onwards all WAKU fishing lines carry the name STROFT and the success story begins. At first with STROFT SUPER, and then STROFT GTM took the lead under the monofilament fishing lines. The line was successfully tested by the TUV institution in Munich. See also: Do objective tests exist for monofilament line? A test area, an island in Großer Brückentinsee near Berlin was acquired and in 1992 the buildings were turned into a hotel for anglers (www.inselhotel-brueckentinsee.de). The rented premises in Berlin had become too small, so an industrial site in Reinfeld was purchased and new company premises erected. The move took place in 1992. In the following year STROFT N, STROFT FLUOR as well as STROFT ABR (made of polyamide), and STROFT FC1 and FC2 (100% Fluorocarbon) became available. And STROFT GTP braid, type R and type S (made of 100% Peak UHMWPE fibres) joined the range, ultimately STROFT GTP braid was chosen as best in test by Blinker magazine in 2008. See also: Are there objective test results / grades for multifilament (braided) lines?
Then in 2011, after many years of development, the GTM STROFT leader system was presented and introduced. The system consists of 44 different knotless digressively tapered leaders. And in 2012, the "best monofilament fishing line in the world", the GTM STROFT expanded from 19 to a total of 40 diameters.
WAKU’s further development made it necessary to strengthen the company’s human resources in leadership and management. Mr. André Giermann started with WAKU as an apprentice and in 2009 he was appointed general manager and has since been responsible for almost all operational and business processes. Mr. Ronald Pasch has strengthened WAKU’s product development for several years. An avid angler, and in previous years also a casting world champion, he advises clients and replies to requests, which in turn often results in new products and developments.
Thus, we believe that WAKU is well positioned to successfully continue with the STROFT philosophy in the years to come, as it has done so this far. See also: What is the STROFT philosophy?

 

Back to top

What does the name STROFT mean?

The name STROFT is set together out of the first four letters of the word “strong” and the first tree letters of the word “soft. STROFT is the registered trade name of fishing lines manufactured by the company WAKU GmbH. The trade name is registered in over forty countries. The company logo, the STROFT knot  is also a registered trademark that is registered in over 40 countries.

Back to top

What is the STROFT philosophy?

The aim is to offer the world’s best fishing lines under the utilization of the most modern technology available. See also: WAKU; the company history this far. In order to reach this goal we focus solely on fishing lines, concentrating all our energy and capacity in this produce – we’ve been doing this for over 35 years. Through constant contact to leading departments that concern themselves with the research and development of plastics and monofilament technology, and through our own tireless tests and experiments we have developed a high degree of technical competence and “know-how”. STROFT fishing lines are developed “in-house” and based on our technical expertise.
The lines are then manufactured exclusively for WAKU by manufacturers that have suitable extruding and braiding facilities. Our specifications are constantly monitored and if necessary corrected. We are able to implement new developments immediately. The names of the products aren’t changed. For example, the monofilament fishing line, STROFT GTM, has experienced thirty-seven improvements. Just as the yellow fluorescent STROFT FLUOR. STROFT GTP has been improved on nineteen occasions. All this together builds the basis of the flexibility and technical superiority of STROFT products.

.

Back to top